Health

How many Types of Vertigo: Diagnosis, and Treatments

Have you ever experienced a twirl of giant wheels or have been to amusement parks for Carousel rides? If yes, you have experienced what vertigo feels like. A spinning sensation that demands you to get off the ride. know types of Vertigo.

Vertigo is a condition where a person experiences a spinning sensation and a world seems to spin around or he may experience whether he is spinning all by himself along with feeling dizzy or unsteady.

Simple activities like walking, sleeping, driving, exercising, etc. seem like a tiring task when one is living with vertigo conditions. Vertigo spells recur without any warning signs making it difficult for a person to live with it and accomplish daily chores.

Mild vertigo conditions are treated well with certain home remedies, but if you are experiencing repeated bouts of vertigo spells, consulting an expert neurologist is recommended. He will diagnose the condition closely and seek the complete medical history of the patient. Your doctor will ask you to undergo various tests depending on the symptoms that strike you to examine the type of vertigo and underlying vertigo cause you are suffering from.

Once the underlying cause of vertigo is diagnosed, your doctor will prescribe you with right vertigo medications depending on the condition and would suggest the right vertigo treatment and exercises for vertigo for a speedy recovery.

Types of Vertigo

Vertigo is widely categorized into two types: Peripheral vertigo and central vertigo. You must be thinking about what these are? and how would I know which vertigo condition I am experiencing?

Well, peripheral vertigo is the most common types of vertigo condition that is diagnosed in the majority of patients who experience sudden bouts of vertigo spells. Whereas the ratio of patients experiencing central vertigo is comparatively less when compared to peripheral vertigo.

According to balance institutes, peripheral vertigo is considered to be a more intense condition when compared to central vertigo. Both the vertigo conditions can be treated well with vertigo medications and vertigo treatments once the doctor diagnoses underlying vertigo causes responsible for peripheral as well as central vertigo. Mild conditions are treated with altering lifestyle habits and home remedies along with vertigo medication.

Types of Vertigo

Let’s have an in-depth look at central vs peripheral vertigo, its causes, diagnosis and vertigo treatment suitable for each vertigo cause.

What Is Peripheral vertigo?

When a person experiences an inflammation, infection, or disorder in the inner ear, that affects the vestibular system, responsible for sending sensory signals from the inner ear to the brain, that regulates hearing and balance of the body, resulting in spinning sensations such a condition is known as peripheral vertigo. Loss of balance, jerky eye movements, loss of hearing ability, or ringing sensation apart from nausea and vomiting are some of the common symptoms that indicate peripheral vertigo. Peripheral vertigo is widely categorized into various forms, let’s dig in to know more about the types of peripheral vertigo.

Types of peripheral vertigo

1.Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

A majority of patients suffering from vertigo bouts are diagnosed with BPPV. It is one of the most common peripheral vertigo causes. A person suffering from BPPV experiences frequent bouts of spinning sensations that appear without any warning and last for a shorter duration. Frequent vertigo bouts make it difficult for a person to hold the balance.

Deposition of calcium crystals in the inner ear blocks the vestibular nerve responsible for sending signals from the inner ear to the brain, such a condition is known as Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). The disruption in signals sent to the brain results in making a person feel dizzy with spinning sensations. BPPV is triggered by the slightest movement of the head or while getting up suddenly or changing positions. BPPV can be a sign of age-related issues or is caused due to ear infection or surgery. Jerky eye movements, dizziness & spinning sensations that last for a fraction of seconds and are caused due to change in position or movement in the position of the head along with nausea and vomiting are some of the common BPPV symptoms.

Diagnosis: Once your doctor will understand your symptoms, to examine it closely he will ask you to undergo various vertigo tests to identify the accurate vertigo cause.

He will ask you to undergo various tests like VNG, the Dix-Hallpike or Roll Tests which requires you to move your head to examine the condition.

Treatment: Once you are diagnosed with BPPV, your doctor will guide you with certain exercises for vertigo as it is considered as the best BPPV vertigo treatment. Epley Manoeuvre, Semont Manoeuvre, Barbeque Manoeuvre, Gufoni Manoeuvre, and Brandt-Daroff Exercise are some of the commonly prescribed exercises for repositioning calcium crystals. Regular practice of these exercises for up to 3 weeks alleviates vertigo condition completely. Your doctor will advise you to include foods rich in vitamin D in your daily diet to prevent the symptoms from triggering any further. If the condition is severe, he may prescribe you with a dose of certain vertigo medication like Vertin or Meclizine depending on your condition and symptoms.

2. Labyrinthitis

Labyrinthitis is another medical condition that indicates peripheral vertigo. The Labyrinth compiles of 2 vestibular nerves responsible for maintaining balance and cochlear nerve which regulates hearing.

An inner ear infection that is caused due to viral infection such as common cold or flu or bacterial infection and causes inflammation in any of the nerves is known as Labyrinthitis. It may make a person feel as if they are spinning which in reality is not true along with dizziness. Spinning sensations, nausea, tinnitus, hearing loss, fever, and earache are some of the common symptoms of  Labyrinthitis.

Diagnosis: To diagnose the condition based on the symptoms experienced by patients, your neurologist will carry certain vertigo tests. Some vestibular tests like VNG, CCG, SVV and DVA help in diagnosing the condition accurately.

Treatment: An expert neurologist will prescribe you with a dose of certain vertigo medications and sedatives to treat the condition and soothe the anxiety caused due to Labyrinthitis. Vertigo medications that hold a short course duration are not given for more than three days. Along with drugs, your doctor will suggest you for Vestibular rehabilitation therapy as vertigo treatment to achieve optimum results in no time.

3. Vestibular Neuronitis

The vestibular nerve is responsible for controlling the balance of the body as it sends sensory signals from the inner ear to the brain. An inflammation or infection caused or spread in the vestibular nerve due to viral infection such as common cold, such a condition is known as Vestibular neuronitis. It is widely known as vestibular neuritis. It makes a person experience a loss of equilibrium with sudden vertigo strokes. Vertigo bouts appear suddenly without any warning signs making it difficult to accomplish daily chores.  Apart from spinning sensations and feeling dizzy, nausea, vomiting, earaches are some of the common symptoms. A person suffering from Vestibular neuronitis experiences intense bouts of vertigo dizziness in starting days and it gradually decreases after weeks.

Diagnosis: The videonystagmography (VNG), The Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) Craniocorpography (CCG) are some of the common vertigo tests that help doctors to examine the condition closely and suggest the right vertigo treatment. A person having Vestibular Neuritis may have reduced Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA).

Treatment: To treat Vestibular neuronitis an expert neurologist will prescribe some oral vertigo medication and sedatives that help in easing the condition. If a condition does not seem to ease with certain drugs he will suggest undergoing vestibular rehabilitation therapy and practice balance exercises for vertigo as vertigo treatment.

4. Meniere’s disease

Meniere’s disease can lead to vertigo bouts that last for hours. There is no cure for such a condition, but altering certain lifestyle habits can ease the condition to a greater extent.

Meniere’s disease is a chronic inner ear condition that is caused due to the excess fluid build-up in the inner ear. The inner ear pressure caused due to excess fluid build-up results in making a person feel dizzy with sudden and repeated episodes of vertigo bouts. Meniere’s disease can affect anyone irrespective of age but is most likely to be found in women as compared to men and in between the age group of 40-60 years. Fullness in the affected ear, ringing sensations, frequent vertigo bouts or spinning sensations, loss of hearing ability, etc. are some of the common symptoms of Meniere’s disease.

Diagnosis: If a patient is experiencing vertigo episodes for a longer duration, doctors carry various vertigo tests to diagnose Meniere’s disease condition. Vertigo tests like VNG (videonystagmography), ECochG (Electrocochleography) and Audiometry help in accurate diagnosis of vertigo condition.

Treatment: Once you are diagnosed with Meniere’s disease, your doctor will advise you to modify your daily diet. It is advised to go on a low salt diet, completely cut off the alcohol and caffeinated beverages to prevent symptoms from triggering any further. Apart from it, your doctor will prescribe you with certain vertigo medications & vestibular suppressants medications like meclizine to reduce the spinning sensation. He will even prescribe certain Diuretics to reduce the efficiency of inner ear pressure. In very rare cases surgery is recommended if conditions do not seem to ease even with injections and therapies.

What is the central vertigo?

A problem within the brain or brain stem which makes a person lose balance along with spinning sensations such a condition is known as central vertigo. Central vertigo is caused due to various factors starting from Head injuries, infection or disease in the head, multiple sclerosis, migraines, brain tumors, strokes, and so on. Central vertigo is the Types of Vertigo.

A person suffering from central vertigo experiences prolonged vertigo bouts that lasts for longer duration as compared to peripheral vertigo spells. Apart from it,  jerky eye movements that even last longer from weeks to months are some of the common indications of central vertigo condition. Headaches, weakness, spinning sensations, trouble in swallowing, dizziness, etc. are some of the common symptoms that arise with central vertigo.

Diagnosis and central vertigo treatment

Your doctor will carry various tests depending on the symptoms shown by the patient of central vertigo to diagnose the underlying vertigo cause. Examining the underlying vertigo cause helps in managing central vertigo. Your doctor will prescribe you the right vertigo medication and suggest the right vertigo treatment for managing the symptoms of central vertigo.

Experiencing vertigo spells? Not aware of the cause? Seek medical help immediately to get yourself diagnosed and get the right treatment at the right time.

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