Education

Basics of Radiation

Heat is defined as a form of energy. While heat transfer is defined as the movement of the heat from one substance to another. here we are providing details about the Types of Radiation. There are three mechanisms through which the heat transfer takes place, and they are:

  • Conduction: It is defined as the process of transfer of heat from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature.
  • Convection: It is defined as the process of transfer of heat in the fluids where the molecules of the fluid move from a higher temperature region to a lower temperature region.
  • Radiation: It is defined as the process of transfer of heat through space or vacuum.

In this article, we shall understand what are the types of radiation, applications of radiation, and effects of radiation.

Types of Radiation

Radiation can travel in the form of energy as well as in the form of waves. When it travels in these two forms, it is known as electromagnetic radiation.

When the same radiation travels in the form of fast-moving particles, it is known as particle radiation. Therefore, we can say that there are two types of radiation:

  • Electromagnetic radiation
  • Particle radiation

What is Electromagnetic Radiation?

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves that are in the form of electric and magnetic energy. EMR could be in the form of energy waves and in various types. The energy of these waves is dependent on the wavelength and frequency. On the electromagnetic spectrum, radio waves are considered to have low energy waves whereas gamma rays are considered to have high energy waves. The wavelength of the radio waves is the longest while the wavelength of the gamma rays is the shortest. The other waves between these two are X- rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, and microwave radiation.

What is Particle Radiation?

Particle radiation consists of atomic and subatomic particles. Particles such as protons, neutrons, and electrons are present in the particle radiation. The most common types of particles are:

  • Alpha particles
  • Beta particles

Effects of Radiation

There are different effects of radiation and it can be classified as:

Threshold effects: These effects are noticed when the radiation reaches enough cells such that they can damage them.Non-threshold effects: These effects can be noticed at the lower levels of radiation exposure. Radiation also has effects of radiation on the human body, and they are:

  • Hair: When the radiation is more than 200 rems, then the hair loss takes place.
  • Heart and brain: When the radiation is more than 1000 to 5000 rems, the functioning of the heart gets affected. It affects the small blood vessels and the nerve cells. When the exposure is more than 5000 rems, the brain cells get affected.
  • Reproductive tract: The chances of reproductive cells getting affected are high as the rate at which these cells divide are fast. Therefore, even with the exposure of fewer than 200 rems, the reproductive tract gets affected.

Interested to learn more about other concepts of Physics, stay tuned with BYJU’S, and also subscribe to our YouTube channel.

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